Knowing the Secondary data
Secondary data can be explained as any data which is accumulated by not by the user but by someone else. The usual sources of secondary data may come from information accumulated by government sectors, censuses, records of organizations which was primarily gathered for namely other reasons. The main reason for secondary data coming to existence is the generation of the primary data about sources of secondary data.
Studying the secondary data
The study of secondary data can help to save a lot of time which would be otherwise be used in accumulating data, and especially when it is concerning the quantitative data sets which result into massive and complex data sets which is unfavorable for a sole researcher to collect independently.
Moreover, the secondary data researchers and analysts bring about a change in the perspective of the data being looked at and used for research purpose. Nevertheless, the secondary study of data can result in development and change which is good but less used in research marketing. The reason mainly being the data is by that time inaccurate or outdated. But is considered as sources of secondary data in research methodology.
What are the sources of Secondary Data?
The sources of secondary data collection can be systemized into two classes
(a) Published sources
(b) Unpublished sources
Let’s take a look at the Published sources
(a) Published Sources
Mostly, the public sources tend to be national, government, semi-government, international, expert committee, research reports, research reports and trade associations.
The information is collected in the statistical form in various fields that entail information such as prices, income, population, export, wages, import, employment, national income, etc. The highly classified research information reports are issued on routinely basis i.e. quarterly, monthly, weekly, fortnightly, annually and so on. The below mentioned are the issued sources of secondary data:
1. Government Publications
The CSO (Central Statistical Organization) and numerous other state government gather, bring together and issue the accumulated data on a punctual basis. A few significantpublications are:
- Reports on Currency and Finance
- Reserve Bank of India Bulletin
- Agricultural Statistics of India
- Statistical Abstract of India
- Indian Foreign Statistics
- Labor Gazette
- Indian Customs and Central Excise Tariff
- Economic Survey
- Bulletin of Agricultural Prices
- Indian Trade Journals and so on.
2. Foreign Bodies
All the international governments and foreign bodies along with international agencies issue repeatedly the usual reports that indicate and inform about the imports. The reports are timely issued by the agencies or bodies such as:-
- Food and Agriculture Organization
- International Labor Organization
- World Meteorological Organization
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
- United Nations Organization
- World Health Organization
3. Semi Govt. Publications
This may mainly include the bodies or incorporations such as organizations municipalities, district boards, semi-government and various other do issue a publish report with concerning information such as the number of deaths, birth, education, sanitation, and various other relevant categories.
4. Reports of Committee and Commissions:
This may include the State Government, Central Government on a timely basis makes sure they designate commissions and committees on significant matters or issues that have great importance on the respective society/area/community. And later the reports of committees on such matters as being of high importance as it holds vital information which makes it is a priceless data. As these reports published are Sahakari Commission Report, Shah Commission Report, Finance Commission Report and reports with relevance data to such meetings.
5. Private Publications
There are a handful of research and advertisement/promotional institutes which issue reports regularly. These institutes primarily include:
- Stock Exchanges
- NCAER(National Council of Applied Economic Research)
- NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training)
- Institutes of Economic Growth and so on.
6. Newspapers and Magazines
There are various magazines and newspapers which do collect and accumulate information with relevance to the majority and numerous economic and social subject matters. The few of them may include as follows:
- Financial Express
- Indian Express
- Economic Times
- Hindustan Times
- Business Standard
- Economic and Political Weekly.
7. Research Scholars
The research scholars are specific or alone-researching individuals who go to collect the information on their own. The data they collect is collected on a self-independent basis as they aim at accomplishing the research work which furthermore if preferred accurate, is enhanced and issued with the research papers they submit to the authorities
(b) Unpublished Source
Several records are sustained perfectly by the private offices, firms, organizations and governmental bodies are the unpublished sources of secondary data. The data is accumulated but never gets published.
Secondary Data: Limitations
It is recommended that one should avoid the use of secondary data in the absence of supervision and utmost care. This is due to the reason that the secondary data us subjected to limitations and pitfalls as mentioned below:-
1. There is no accurate or predefined process in the collection of massive data sets.
2. In some cases, the secondary data is greatly affected by the decision of the data collector and invigilator. The determination of the data collector, invigilator has some serious effects on the data set.
3. The secondary data lacks accuracy and precision. This is due to a lack of systematic data collection.
4. Also, the secondary data may be inclusive or exclusive the entire period of investigation. Meaning the data accumulation may have completed way before time which may lead to inaccuracy in assumptions which will be made based on the accumulated secondary data.
As the secondary data is directly linked with the quantitative databases, the study is directed and predetermined on visual or verbal shreds of evidence which came into existence for various other reasons.
This is something great for the ones who do qualitative research. Instead, a researcher can state that the secondary data quantitative analysis is less relevant as it is a result of the primary data which was accumulated for other reasons. And using the same data for some other random reason may give results but it is not sure how accurate the results or outcome may be.